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Chaudhry Rahmat Ali

Chaudhry Rahmat Ali


Chaudhry Rahmat Ali s/o Haji Chaudhry Shah Mohammad of Mohar was born on November 16, 1893 in village Balachaur, District Chaudhry Rahmat Ali - Cambridge student, 1932Hoshiarpur, Punjab. He got his early education in Jalandhar and graduated from Islamia College, Lahore in 1919. In 1930, he left for Cambridge (England) for his postgraduate studies in Law. He finished his education obtaining M.A. LL.B., with honours from the University of Cambridge and Dublin respectively.

In 1933, Chaudhry Rahmat Ali originated the word Pakistan. So far as scheme of the division of India is concerned he claims to have proposed it as early as 1915 in his inaugural address to Bazam-i-Shibli, in these words:
"North of India is Muslim and we will keep it Muslim. Not only that, we will make it a Muslim State. But this we can do only if and when we and our North cease to be Indian. For that is a pre-requisite to it. So the sooner we shed 'Indianism', the better for us all and for Islam".

From 1915 to 1930, nothing further is known about Rahmat Ali's views and activities. In 1930, a series of Round Table Conference were held in London to devise a new Constitution for India and to these Conferences, delegates of all communities and parties of whom about 26 were Muslims were invited to participate. On this occasion, he approached the Muslim delegates, and discussed with them the political and constitutional situation from Muslim point of view.

Chaudry Rahmat Ali, standing #4 from left
Chaudry Rahmat Ali (seated left) and Allama Mohammad Iqbal (seated middle), 1932
Chaudry Rahmat Ali (left) sitting opposite Allama Mohammad Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah at a dinner, London 1933

The historic declaration titled: 'Now or Never' was issued from Cambridge on January 28, 1933. Besides Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, the other cosignatories were Mohammad Aslam Khan Khattak (President, Khyber Union), Sahibzada Sheikh Mohammad Sadiq and Inayatuallah Khan of Charsadda (Secretary, Khyber Union).

Chaudry Rahmat Ali's Pakistan Declaration, Jan 28, 1933. First use of word 'Pakstan'

The Declaration urged:
"India, constituted as it is at the present moment, is not the name of one single country; not the home of one single nation. It is in fact, the designation of a State created by the British for the first time in history. It includes peoples who have never previously formed part of the Indian nation at any period of its history, but who have, on the contrary, from the dawn of history till the advent of British, possessed and retained distinct nationalities of their own. One of such peoples is our own nation. In the five Northern Provinces of India, out of a total population of about forty million, we, the Muslims, constitute about thirty million, our social code and economic system, our laws of inheritance, succession and marriage are fundamentally different from those of most peoples living the rest of India. The ideals which move our people to make the highest sacrifice are essentially different from those which inspire the Hindus to do the same. These differences are not confined to broad, basic principles. Far from it. They extend to the minutest details of our lives. We do not inter-dine; we do not inter-marry. Our national customs and calendars, even our diet and dress are different."

In the name of the Muslim brethren who live in 'Pakistan' a demand was made for a separate Federation of the five predominantly Muslim units - Punjab, North-West Frontier (Afghania Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan. The declaration ended on this note:
"...The issue is now or never. Either we live or perish for ever. The future is ours only if we live up to our faith. It does not lie in the lap of the gods, but it rests in our own hands. We can make or mar it. The history of the last century is full of open warnings, and they are as plain as were ever given to any nation. Shall it be said of us that we ignored all those warnings and allowed our ancient heritage to perish in our own hands."

Chaudry Rahmat AliRahmat Ali launched the Pakistan National Movement by issuing and distributing pamphlets, tracts, handbills and other literature. A weekly newspaper under the title 'Pakistan' was also started. As a result of the campaign carried on for the propaganda of the P akistan Scheme, notice thereof was taken by the Joint Parliamentary Select Committee and questions were put about Pakistan on August 1, 1933, to the Muslim deputation consisting of Mr. A. Yusuf Ali, Sir Muhammad Yakub, Mr. H.S. Suhrawardy, Dr. Khalifa Shuja-ud-Din and Khan Sahib Haji Rashid Ahmad.

In July 1935, Chaudhry Rahmat Ali circulated another four page leaflet from another Cambridge address. In it he claimed to be the founder of Pakistan National Movement and as its President he signed the document. A new point was made of the new Government of Burma Act. "While Burma is being separated from Hindustan, it remains a mystery to us why Pakistan is to be forced in the Indian Federation."

Chaudhry Rahmat Ali's Pak Plan, 1940

In 1937, Rahmat Ali declared that there should be Bang-i-Islam'stan for the combined territories of Bengal and Assam. On March 8, 1940 Rahmat Ali addressed a meeting of the Supreme Council of the Pakistan National Movement at Karachi on the 'Millat of Islam' and the 'Menace of Indianism'. He initiated the second part of his plan pertaining to Bang-i-Islam (abbreviation of Bang-i-Islam'stan) and Osmanistan (Hyderabad Deccan).

Rahmat Ali was not satisfied with his scheme for the establishment of Pakistan, Bangistan and Osmanistan. He inaugurated in October 1942, what he called Parts III, IV, VI and VII of the Pakistan plan. The Seven Commandments of Destiny for the seventh Continent of the Dinia are contained in the pamphlet under the caption of "The Millat and the Mission".

Chaudhry Rahmat AliOn March 15, 1943 Chaudhry Rahmat Ali issued the statement called "The Millat and her Minorities" wherein he dealt with the creation of 'Haideristan". In 1944, he pursued his scheme of the Commonwealth of Nations through a circular captioned the "Millat and her ten Nations". In 1945, he announced the 'Dinia Continent Movement'. In 1946, he proposed 'Siddiquistan' for the Central Dinia. At the same time, he published a booklet entitled "Safistan" with regard to the status of the Muslims in the Western Ceylon and the Ameen Islands. The word 'Safi' was adopted as in Arabic it meant 'the chosen'.

Simultaneously another pamphlet was issued by him called "Nasaristan" dealing with eastern Ceylon. After the Muslim League accepted the British plan of the June 3, 1947, he issued a statement on June 9, 1947, revised version whereof was published under the title: "The Greatest Betryal". He pleaded therein for the rejection of the British plan and to redeem the Millat by accepting his 'Pak Plan'. On August 15, 1948 he addressed from Lahore a Memorandum to the Secretary-General, United Nations, regarding the Muslim minority in India and the saving duty of the U.N.O. He referred to "the horrible crimes" explained that were being committed against the Muslim by the Hindus, explained the causes of their helpless position under "Hindu hegemony" and demanded the immediate dispatch by the U.N.O. of a Commission of Inquiry to India.

Chaudhry Rahmat Ali died on February 12, 1951 in Cambridge, England.

Evolution of Pakistan, Lahore, 1963, pp. 131-146 (Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada)
Biographical Dictionary of South Asia, Lahore, 1980, pp-105-107 (Syed Razi Wasti)



India never was one, was never a nation, never was a country governed by one single power even with the sword. It is a sub-continent of different nationalities and peoples. It was never governed, in history, by one single power. Even today, when constitutionally and legally British are ruling over India, one third India is not British. The administrative oneness is entirely the making of the British. The government, which has been in this sub-Continent for 150 or 160 years, is not a government with the sanction of the peoples.... It is the sanction of British bayonets and not the sanction of the peoples.

Muslim League Council, November 9, 1942
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