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Rabi-ul-Awwal 29, 1439





Days remaining to
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August 14





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Hindustan's Commitments on Kashmir



INDSÆT BILLEDE AF FX EN KASHMIRI


Mountbatten's conditional acceptance of accession - Oct. 27, 1947

Text of Louis Mountbatten's letter dated October 27, 1947 signifying his acceptance of the Instrument of Accession signed by the Kashmir Maharaja.

"My dear Maharaja Sahib,

Lord MountbattenYour Highness' letter dated 26 October has been delivered to me by Mr. V. P. Menon. In the special circumstances mentioned by your Highness my Government have decided to accept the accession of Kashmir State to the Dominion of India. Consistently with their policy that in the case of any State where the issue of accession has been the subject of dispute, the question if accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the State, it is my Government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference to the people.

Meanwhile in response to your Highness' appeal for military aid action has been taken today to send troops of the Indian Army to Kashmir to help your own forces to defend your territory and to protect the lives, property and honour of your people.

My Government and I note with satisfaction that your Highness has decided to invite Sheikh Abdullah to form an interim Government to work with your Prime Minister.

With kind regards,

I remain
Yours sincerely,
Mountbatten of Burma,"
New Delhi
October 27, 1947.




Nehru's cable to Attlee on Kashmir - Oct. 26, 1947

Text of telegram dated October 26, 1947 from Jawaharlal Nehru to the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee.

Jawaharlal Nehru"For Prime Minister United Kingdom from Prime Minister India.

A grave situation has developed in the State of Kashmir. Large numbers of Afridis and other tribesmen from the Frontier have invaded State territory, occupied several towns and massacred large numbers of non-Muslims. According to our information tribesmen have been equipped with motor transport and also with automatic weapons and have passed through Pakistan territory. Latest news is that the invaders are proceeding up the Jhelum Valley road toward the valley of Kashmir.

We have received urgent appeal for assistance from Kashmir Government. We would be disposed to give favourable consideration to such request from any friendly State. Kashmir's Northern frontiers, as you are aware, run in common with those of three countries, Afghanistan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and China. Security of Kashmir, which must depend upon control of internal tranquillity and existence of stable Government, is vital to security of India especially since part of Southern boundary of Kashmir and India are common. Helping Kashmir, therefore, is an obligation of national interest to India. We are giving urgent consideration to question as to what assistance we can give to State to defend itself.

I should like to make it clear that question of aiding Kashmir in this emergency is not designed in any way to influence the State to accede to India. Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with wishes of people and we adhere to this view. It is quite clear, however, that no free expression of will of people of Kashmir is possible if external aggression succeeds in imperilling integrity of its territory.

I have thought it desirable to inform you of situation because of its threat of international complications."




Nehru's Telegram to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan - Oct. 27, 1947

On October 27, 1947, the day the Indian army officially 'intervened' in Kashmir, Jawaharlal Nehru sent the following telegram to Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.

"I should like to make it clear that the question of aiding Kashmir in this emergency is not designed in any way to influence the State to accede to India. Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with the wishes of people and we adhere to this view......"




Nehru's Telegram to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan - Oct. 31, 1947

Four days later, in his telegram of October 31, 1947, to Pakistan Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, Nehru said:

.... "Our assurance that we shall withdraw our troops from Kashmir as soon as peace and order are restored and leave the decision about the future of the State to the people of the State is not merely a pledge to your Government but also the people of Kashmir and to the world."




Nehru's Pledge - Nov. 2, 1947

Extracts from Nehru's Broadcast on November 2, 1947.

"We have decided to accept this accession and to send troops by air, but we made a condition that the accession would have to be considered by the people of Kashmir later when peace and order were established. We were anxious not to finalize anything in a moment of crisis, and without the fullest opportunity to the people of Kashmir to have their say. It was for them ultimately to decide.

"And here let me make clear that it has been our policy all along that where there is a dispute about the accession of a State to either Dominion, the decision must be made by the people of the State. It was in accordance with this policy that we added a proviso to the Instrument of Accession of Kashmir."

"We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the Maharaja has supported it not only to the people of Kashmir but the world. We will not, and cannot back out of it. We are prepared when peace and law and order have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations. We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people, and we shall accept their verdict. I can imagine no fairer and juster offer."




Nehru's reiteration of Plebiscite Pledge - Nov. 4, 1947

Text of telegram dated November 4, 1947, from Nehru to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.

"Following for Liaquat Ali Khan from Jawaharlal Nehru.

I have recieved no reply yet from you to my telegram Primin-265 dated October 31st regarding Kashmir.

Reference last paragraph of your telegram No. 368-G dated October 30th, I have enquired from Prime Minister, Kashmir, about alleged raid. His reply sent after investigation is that there was no raid from West Punjab side into Jammu Province. This was resisted by villagers and State troops and two Gurkha soldiers were killed in Kashmir territory. Apparently their bodies were dragged away by raiders into West Punjab.

I am informed in Jammu Province the situation is well in hand except in areas under occupation of raiders who are continuing their depredations. Kashmir Government is protecting Muslims in Jammu and border would be quite safe but for raiders from West Punjab.

I have repeatedly requested you to stop raiders from entering Kashmir territory from Pakistan, both in Jammu Province and along Jhelum valley road. Our information is that these raiders are being helped by high Pakistan officials. Indeed Prime Minister of N.W.F.P. has openly declared that these raiders should be helped. We have definite information that senior officials of Frontier Province are giving every assistance to these raiders. We put it to you that this is not only against your own declaration but also is a breach of international law. We trust that you will take immediate steps and not only stop further raiders from coming into Kashmir State territory but order withdrawal of all those who are already in Kashmir State.

We are anxious to restore peaceful conditions in Kashmir and we invite your cooperation again to this end. This can only be done after withdrawal of raiders from State territory. As soon as raiders are withdrawn there would be no necessity for our keeping our troops there.

I wish to draw your attention to broadcast on Kashmir which I made last evening. I have stated our Government's policy and made it clear that we have no desire to impose our will on Kashmir but to leave final decision to people of Kashmir. I further stated that we have agreed on impartial international agency like United Nations supervising any referendum.

This principle we are prepared to apply to any State where there is a dispute about accession. If these principles are accepted by your Government there should be no difficulty in giving effet to them."




Nehru's address to Constituent Assembly of Hindustan - Nov. 25, 1947

On 25 November, 1947, Mr. Nehru, in his address to the Constituent Assembly of Hindustan, stated: "Further we made it clear that as soon as law and order had been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders, the question of the State's accession should be settled by reference to the people." He added: "In order to establish our bonafides we have suggested that when the people are given the chance to decide their future this should be done under the supervision of an impartial tribunal such as the United Nations Organisation."




Government of Hindustan's letter to the Security Council - Dec. 31, 1947

In its letter of December 31, 1947, taking the Kashmir issue to the UN, the Government of Hindustan wrote to the Security Council: " ... But in order to avoid any possible suggestion that India had utilised the State's immediate peril for her own political advantage, the Government of India made it clear that once the soil of the State had been cleared of the invader and normal conditions restored, its people would be free to decide their future by the recognised democratic method of plebiscite or referendum which, in order to ensure complete impartiality, might be held under international auspices."




Indian Representative's address to the Security Council

While presenting the complaint to the Security Council, Mr. Gopalaswami Ayyengar, Hindustan's representative, said:

"... We desire only to see peace restored in Kashmir and to ensure that the people of Kashmir are left free to decide in an orderly and peaceful manner the future of their State. We have no further interest, and we have agreed that a plebiscite in Kashmir might take place under international auspices after peace and order have been established ..."




Nehru's statement in Hindustani Parliament - Feb. 12, 1951

"We have given our pledge to the people of Kashmir and subsequently to the United Nations; we stood by it and we stand by it today. Let the people of Kashmir decide."




Hindustani Representative's assurance to the Security Council - May 29, 1951

Hindustani representative Mr Rajeswar Dayal stated before the Security Council on May 29, 1951:

"I reaffirm that so far as the Government of India is concerned the Constituent Assembly for Kashmir is not intended to prejudice the issue before the Security Council or come in its way."




Nehru's press statement: Kashmir constituent assembly does not supersede, the UN resolutions - June 11, 1951

At a press conference on 11 June, 1951, Mr Nehru was asked 'What will happen if the constituent Assembly in Kashmir decide in favour of acceding to India?' He replied:

"We have made it perfectly clear that the Constituent Assembly of Kashmir was not meant and is not meant to come in the way of any decision which might flow ultimately from the Security Council's decisions."




Nehru' s report to the All India Congress Committee - July 6, 1951

"People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity of sale or to be bartered. It has individual existence and its people must be the final arbiters of their future."




Nehru's statement in the Hindustani Parliament - June 26, 1952

"If after a proper plebiscite, the people of Kashmir say, 'We do not want to be with India', we are committed to accept that. We will accept it, though it might pain us. We will not send any army against them. We will accept that, however hurt we might feel about it, we will change the constitution if necessary."




Nehru's statement in the Hindustani Parliament - Aug. 7, 1952

"I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir. It is not that we have merely said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction.

I started with the assumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign."

 
 
   
   
MADAR-E-MILLAT
MOHTARMA FATIMA JINNAH


Pakistan

The immediate task before you is to face the problem and bring the country back on the right path with the bugles of Quaid-i-Azam's message. March forward under the banner of star and the crescent with unity in your ranks, faith in you mission and discipline. Fulfill your mission and a great sublime future awaits your enthusiasm and action. Remember: 'cowards die many times before death, the valiant never tastes death but once.' This is the only course of action which suits any self-respecting people and certainly the Muslim Nation.

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