Mountbatten's conditional acceptance of accession - Oct. 27, 1947
Text of Louis Mountbatten's letter dated October 27, 1947 signifying his acceptance of the Instrument of Accession signed by the
"My dear Maharaja Sahib,
Your Highness' letter dated 26 October has been delivered to me by Mr. V. P. Menon. In the special circumstances mentioned by
your Highness my Government have decided to accept the accession of Kashmir State to the Dominion of India. Consistently with their
policy that in the case of any State where the issue of accession has been the subject of dispute, the question if accession should
be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the State, it is my Government's wish that as soon as law and order have
been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference
to the people.
Meanwhile in response to your Highness' appeal for military aid action has been taken today to send troops of the Indian Army to
Kashmir to help your own forces to defend your territory and to protect the lives, property and honour of your people.
My Government and I note with satisfaction that your Highness has decided to invite Sheikh Abdullah to form an interim Government
to work with your Prime Minister.
With kind regards,
Mountbatten of Burma,"
October 27, 1947.
Nehru's cable to Attlee on Kashmir - Oct. 26, 1947
Text of telegram dated October 26, 1947 from Jawaharlal Nehru to the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee.
"For Prime Minister United Kingdom from Prime Minister India.
A grave situation has developed in the State of Kashmir. Large numbers of Afridis and other tribesmen from the Frontier have invaded
State territory, occupied several towns and massacred large numbers of non-Muslims. According to our information tribesmen have been
equipped with motor transport and also with automatic weapons and have passed through Pakistan territory. Latest news is that the
invaders are proceeding up the Jhelum Valley road toward the valley of Kashmir.
We have received urgent appeal for assistance from Kashmir Government. We would be disposed to give favourable consideration to
such request from any friendly State. Kashmir's Northern frontiers, as you are aware, run in common with those of three countries,
Afghanistan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and China. Security of Kashmir, which must depend upon control of internal
tranquillity and existence of stable Government, is vital to security of India especially since part of Southern boundary of Kashmir
and India are common. Helping Kashmir, therefore, is an obligation of national interest to India. We are giving urgent consideration
to question as to what assistance we can give to State to defend itself.
I should like to make it clear that question of aiding Kashmir in this emergency is not designed in any way to influence the
State to accede to India. Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory
or State must be decided in accordance with wishes of people and we adhere to this view. It is quite clear, however, that no free
expression of will of people of Kashmir is possible if external aggression succeeds in imperilling integrity of its territory.
I have thought it desirable to inform you of situation because of its threat of international complications."
Nehru's Telegram to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan - Oct. 27, 1947
On October 27, 1947, the day the Indian army officially 'intervened' in Kashmir, Jawaharlal Nehru sent the following telegram to
Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.
"I should like to make it clear that the question of aiding Kashmir in this emergency is not designed in any way to influence
the State to accede to India. Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed
territory or State must be decided in accordance with the wishes of people and we adhere to this view......"
Nehru's Telegram to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan - Oct. 31, 1947
Four days later, in his telegram of October 31, 1947, to Pakistan Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, Nehru said:
.... "Our assurance that we shall withdraw our troops from Kashmir as soon as peace and order are restored and leave the decision
about the future of the State to the people of the State is not merely a pledge to your Government but also the people of Kashmir and
to the world."
Nehru's Pledge - Nov. 2, 1947
Extracts from Nehru's Broadcast on November 2, 1947.
"We have decided to accept this accession and to send troops by air, but we made a condition that the accession would have to be
considered by the people of Kashmir later when peace and order were established. We were anxious not to finalize anything in a
moment of crisis, and without the fullest opportunity to the people of Kashmir to have their say. It was for them ultimately to
"And here let me make clear that it has been our policy all along that where there is a dispute about the accession of a State to
either Dominion, the decision must be made by the people of the State. It was in accordance with this policy that we added a
proviso to the Instrument of Accession of Kashmir."
"We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the
Maharaja has supported it not only to the people of Kashmir but the world. We will not, and cannot back out of it. We are prepared
when peace and law and order have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations.
We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people, and we shall accept their verdict. I can imagine no fairer and juster offer."
Nehru's reiteration of Plebiscite Pledge - Nov. 4, 1947
Text of telegram dated November 4, 1947, from Nehru to Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.
"Following for Liaquat Ali Khan from Jawaharlal Nehru.
I have recieved no reply yet from you to my telegram Primin-265 dated October 31st regarding Kashmir.
Reference last paragraph of your telegram No. 368-G dated October 30th, I have enquired from Prime Minister, Kashmir, about alleged
raid. His reply sent after investigation is that there was no raid from West Punjab side into Jammu Province. This was resisted by villagers
and State troops and two Gurkha soldiers were killed in Kashmir territory. Apparently their bodies were dragged away by raiders into West
I am informed in Jammu Province the situation is well in hand except in areas under occupation of raiders who are continuing their
depredations. Kashmir Government is protecting Muslims in Jammu and border would be quite safe but for raiders from West Punjab.
I have repeatedly requested you to stop raiders from entering Kashmir territory from Pakistan, both in Jammu Province and along Jhelum
valley road. Our information is that these raiders are being helped by high Pakistan officials. Indeed Prime Minister of N.W.F.P. has
openly declared that these raiders should be helped. We have definite information that senior officials of Frontier Province are giving
every assistance to these raiders. We put it to you that this is not only against your own declaration but also is a breach of international
law. We trust that you will take immediate steps and not only stop further raiders from coming into Kashmir State territory but order
withdrawal of all those who are already in Kashmir State.
We are anxious to restore peaceful conditions in Kashmir and we invite your cooperation again to this end. This can only be done after
withdrawal of raiders from State territory. As soon as raiders are withdrawn there would be no necessity for our keeping our troops there.
I wish to draw your attention to broadcast on Kashmir which I made last evening. I have stated our Government's policy and made
it clear that we have no desire to impose our will on Kashmir but to leave final decision to people of Kashmir. I further stated
that we have agreed on impartial international agency like United Nations supervising any referendum.
This principle we are prepared to apply to any State where there is a dispute about accession. If these principles are accepted
by your Government there should be no difficulty in giving effet to them."
Nehru's address to Constituent Assembly of Hindustan - Nov. 25, 1947
On 25 November, 1947, Mr. Nehru, in his address to the Constituent Assembly of Hindustan, stated: "Further we made it clear that as
soon as law and order had been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders, the question of the State's accession
should be settled by reference to the people." He added: "In order to establish our bonafides we have suggested that when the
people are given the chance to decide their future this should be done under the supervision of an impartial tribunal such as
the United Nations Organisation."
Government of Hindustan's letter to the Security Council - Dec. 31, 1947
In its letter of December 31, 1947, taking the Kashmir issue to the UN, the Government of Hindustan wrote to the Security Council:
" ... But in order to avoid any possible suggestion that India had utilised the State's immediate peril for her own political
advantage, the Government of India made it clear that once the soil of the State had been cleared of the invader and normal
conditions restored, its people would be free to decide their future by the recognised democratic method of plebiscite or
referendum which, in order to ensure complete impartiality, might be held under international auspices."
Indian Representative's address to the Security Council
While presenting the complaint to the Security Council, Mr. Gopalaswami Ayyengar, Hindustan's representative, said:
"... We desire only to see peace restored in Kashmir and to ensure that the people of Kashmir are left free to decide in an
orderly and peaceful manner the future of their State. We have no further interest, and we have agreed that a plebiscite in
Kashmir might take place under international auspices after peace and order have been established ..."
Nehru's statement in Hindustani Parliament - Feb. 12, 1951
"We have given our pledge to the people of Kashmir and subsequently to the United Nations; we stood by it and we stand by it
today. Let the people of Kashmir decide."
Hindustani Representative's assurance to the Security Council - May 29, 1951
Hindustani representative Mr Rajeswar Dayal stated before the Security Council on May 29, 1951:
"I reaffirm that so far as the Government of India is concerned the Constituent Assembly for Kashmir is not intended to
prejudice the issue before the Security Council or come in its way."
Nehru's press statement: Kashmir constituent assembly does not supersede, the UN resolutions - June 11, 1951
At a press conference on 11 June, 1951, Mr Nehru was asked 'What will happen if the constituent Assembly in Kashmir decide in
favour of acceding to India?' He replied:
"We have made it perfectly clear that the Constituent Assembly of Kashmir was not meant and is not meant to come in the way of
any decision which might flow ultimately from the Security Council's decisions."
Nehru' s report to the All India Congress Committee - July 6, 1951
"People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity of sale or to be bartered. It has individual existence and its people
must be the final arbiters of their future."
Nehru's statement in the Hindustani Parliament - June 26, 1952
"If after a proper plebiscite, the people of Kashmir say, 'We do not want to be with India', we are committed to accept that.
We will accept it, though it might pain us. We will not send any army against them. We will accept that, however hurt we might
feel about it, we will change the constitution if necessary."
Nehru's statement in the Hindustani Parliament - Aug. 7, 1952
"I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir. It is not that we have merely
said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction.
I started with the assumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In
that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign."